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The history of Anatolia and Thrace before the Republic of Turkey


Ancient Times
The Hittites settled in Anatolia in 2nd millennium BC. During the 1st millennium BC the Ancient Greek states of Ionia, Lydia and Troy were located there. It was captured by the Roman Empire in the 1st century AD.

The Middle Ages
The Byzantine Empire became the successor of Rome and lasted for more than a thousand years. Following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 the Byzantines lost control of Anatolia to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rüm. In the late 13th century the Ottoman Empire rose to power.

Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Founding of the Republic
The Ottoman Empire joined the central powers of Germany and Austria in World War I, fighting against the US, France and Britain. The Battle of Gallipoli was a major battle for the Ottomans. This battle marked the raise of Kemal Atatürk who would later become the leader of the movement that founded the republic. Meanwhile, the government of the Ottoman Empire carried out the Armenian Genocide (this article is disputed, see talk page). At the end of the war, in Paris Peace Conference, treaty of Sevres was signed by the sultan's representatives. This treaty gave most of the land of Ottoman Empire to the allies, and independence to Armenia, Kurdistan and Hejaz. This treaty however was not ratified by any of the signatory countries, except for Greece. Following the Turkish War of Independence it was superseded by the treaty of Lausanne which established the current borders of Turkey, except for the Hatay Province.




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